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INTANGIRIRO Y’ABANYARWANDA

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Intangiriro y’Abanyarwanda

Mu myaka irenga ibihumbi bibiri babana, abaturage babaga ku butaka bw’u Rwanda rw’uyu munsi bateje imbere umuryango ukomeye ushingiye ku muco, ushingiye ku bwuzuzanye bw’umusaruro w’ibiribwa, guhahirana no gushyingiranwa. Muri uku guhuza umuco havutsemo imiryango 18, buri wose uhuza abahinzi, aborozi ndetse n’abahigi. Ugereranyije aya matsinda y’imibereho niyo yaje kwitwa Abahutu, Abatutsi n’Abatwa.

Iyi miryango yashimishwaga n’ubusabane. Kimwe mu by’ingenzi cyari ubuse, ukuganira kurimo gutebya no gusetsa mu mubano hagati y’imiryango kavukire hamwe n’abahabwaga izina ry’imiryango mishya ije vuba. Ubuse bwagize uruhare runini mu kubungabunga no kubumbira hamwe umuryango w’Abanyarwanda.

Kunywana: igihango, cyari gikunze kugiranwa hagati y’abari mu miryango y’abahinzi n’iya aborozi, ibi byahuzaga abakigiranye bombi ndetse bikagera ku rugero rw’ubuvandimwe. Kurenga ku masezerano y’igihango byafatwaga nk’ikizira.

Ingoma y’ubwami bw’u Rwanda yaranzwe n’iyo mibereho n’umuco kandi niyo yashyizeho Igihugu cy’Abanyarwanda. Amaze kwimikwa, Umwami yahindukaga ikiranga Igihugu: « Umwami wa rubanda», bisobanura « Umwami w’abaturage »

Mu ntangiriro z’ikinyejana cya 19 habayeho kwiyongera kwinshi ko kutumvikana biturutse ku mitungo y’ubutaka bitewe n’ubwiyongere bw’abaturage ndetse n’amashyo y’inka. Ibi byongereye amakimbirane hagati y’aborozi n’abahinzi bari bakeneye ubutaka binatera ingorane mu mibanire yabo.

Ivugurura ryakozwe n’ubuyobozi bw’abakoroni b’Ababiligi ryo mu myaka ya 1930 ryahinduye byinshi mu mikorere yariho icyo gihe, bashimangira imico yabo ijyanye no gukoresha. Urugero : ubuhake, umuco gakondo wakoreshwaga mu gushyiraho amahirwe y’umubano wihariye hagati y’uhatse n’uhatswe, bwabaye ikintu ngenderwaho mu buyobozi rusange kandi bwinjiza amafaranga agomba guhembwa abatware, byabaye umutwaro w’inyongera ku bikorwa by’agahato by’abakoroni byangwaga urunuka. Byitwa : Akazi.

INyiramuhumuza

Mu 1905, mu majyaruguru y’Igihugu, umuvuzi gakondo w’umugore witwa Nyiramuhumuza akoresheje imbaraga z’umwuka w’abayoboke ba Nyabingi, yakanguriye Abaturage benshi kandi b’ingeri zinyuranye kurwanya igitero cy’abakoroni ndetse n’itegeko rya cyami ritavugwaho rumwe rikomoka ku izungura.

Intekerezo ya Hamitike

Yashyigikiwe n’abamenyamuntu bagendera ku moko mu kinyejana cya 19 mu Burayi, bavugaga ko bagaragaza itandukaniro n’inzego mu moko y’abantu binyuze mu gupima ibihanga. Igihe abakoroni bageraga mu Rwanda, bayobowe n’intekerezo ya « Hamitike », bagaragaje “ubwoko bwa Hamitike”, Abatutsi, batandukanye n’abaturage ba “Negroid” basanzwe bo muri Afurika yo munsi y’ubutayu bwa Sahara, Abahutu ; mu gihe babonaga ko Abatwa bafitanye isano rito n’ikiremwa muntu.

Abakoroni bashyiraho ubutegetsi bwiganjemo Abatutsi

Nyuma yo kwambura igihugu Abadage mu 1916, abakoroni b’Ababiligi bashatse kuvugurura Igihugu cy’u Rwanda bakurikije icyerekezo cyabo cy’ivanguramoko. Nyuma yo gushyiraho indangamuntu ishingiye ku moko mu 1933, bakuyeho uduce twigenga tw’Abahutu, binyuranyije n’ubushake bw’umwami Yuhi Musinga, warwanyaga icyo yabonaga ko ari ukurenga ku migenzo gakondo. Ubukoroni bwirukanye Abahutu, Abatwa n’abagore ku myanya y’icyubahiro, bituma habaho kwiharira kw’Abatutsi mu myanya y’ubutegetsi busanzweho; ari nako batangizaga imirimo y’agahato, akenshi yashyiraga igitutu ku Bahutu.

Amashuri ayobowe na Misiyoni Gatolika, yagejeje ku banyeshuri ibisobanuro by’ivangura rishingiye ku mitekerereze y’abanyaburayi ku mateka y’u Rwanda, bahindura Abatutsi abanyamahanga ugereranyije n’Abahutu ndetse n’Abatwa. Izi nyigisho, haba mu mashuri yisumbuye ndetse no mu maseminari, zatije umurindi amatsinda ahanganye mu banyabwenge.

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UGUSENYUKA KW’IGIHUGU

“Impinduramatwara y’Abahutu yo mu 1959” yashyigikiwe n’ubutegetsi bw’abakoroni

Mu myaka ya 1950, mu guhangana no gusabwa ubwigenge n’abatware b’Abatutsi, ubuyobozi bw’abakoroni b’Ababiligi bwahagaritse ubufatanye n’abanyabwenge b’Abatutsi bahitamo kwimurira ubutegetsi mu maboko y’Abahutu batavuga rumwe n’abo basanzwe bakorana kandi biteguye gukorera inyungu zabo. Kugira ngo ibyo bigerweho, bongereye kandi bashyira mu bikorwa politiki yo kwigomeka kw’abahinzi bayihindura impinduramatwara ku nyungu z’agatsiko k’abahezanguni batavuga rumwe n’abandi bahutu: Ishyaka ryo kuzamura Abahutu, (PARMEHUTU) n’umuyobozi waryo Kayibanda Gregoire, waje kuba Perezida w’u Rwanda ubwo rwabonaga ubwigenge.

Icyiswe “Impinduramatwara y’Abahutu yo mu 1959” ni umusaruro w’imyaka myinshi y’amacakubiri ashingiye ku moko yashyizweho na politiki y’abakoroni, yanateye kandi kwinubira cyane akarengane kakozwe n’abakoroni aho itsinda rito ry’Abatutsi ryakoreshwaga. Mu “gihe cy’impinduramatwara” (1959-1964), ibikorwa bya jenoside byakorewe Abatutsi; kimwe cya kabiri cy’Abatutsi birukanywe mu ngo zabo. Bamwe boherejwe mu nkambi, bagatuzwa mu bice by’ubutaka bwumagaye bw’u Rwanda, mu gihe Abatutsi 300.000, “impunzi zo muri 1959”, birukaniwe ku gahato, bahungira mu bihugu by’abaturanyi.

PARMEHUTU yashyizeho Leta y’Abahutu ishingiye ku ngengabitekerezo ifite imizi ya jenoside, yaje kugenderwaho n’ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana. Uru rufatiro rw’ibitekerezo rushimangira itegurwa rya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yaje kuba nyuma y’imyaka mirongo itatu, mu 1994.

Michel Rwagasana, yarwanyije politiki y’ivangura mu mizo ya mbere

Hagati ya 1961 na 1963, Michel Rwagasana yari ahagarariye ishyaka rirwanya ubukoroni, Union Nationale Rwandaise (UNAR) mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko. Rwagasana yarwanyije politiki y’amacakubiri ya mubyara we Perezida Kayibanda kandi arengera ubudacogora indangagaciro z’ubumwe bw’igihugu. Mu Kuboza 1963, igihe ubutegetsi bwicaga Abatutsi ibihumbi, yanze guhunga aricwa. Muri 2009, Michel Rwagasana yatangajwe nk’intwari y’icyiciro cy’IMENA cyo mu rwego rw’Intwari z’Igihugu.

Ikibazo cyo mu 1973

Mu 1973, perezida Kayibanda wari waciwe intege, mu gushaka impinduka muri politiki yashishikarije abayoboke be kwica abanyeshuri n’abakozi ba Leta b’Abatutsi. Ibihumbi n’ibihumbi birimo, bamwe mu bahinzi, barahohotewe, baricwa ndetse bahatirwa guhunga igihugu. Nyuma y’amezi make, abasirikare bakuru bakomokaga mu majyaruguru bahiritse ubutegetsi bashyiraho Jenerali Majoro Habyarimana Juvenal.

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ISENYUKA RYA LETA Y’AMACAKUBIRI

Indunduro y’ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana

Nyuma yo gufata ubutegetsi, Habyarimana, ukomoka mu majyaruguru, yashyizeho “politiki y’ iringaniza ry’amoko n’uturere”. Iyi politiki yari ihishe umugambi wo guheza Abatutsi mu mibereho no muri politiki, bagashyirwa ku rwego rw’abaturage bo mu cyiciro cya kabiri, bagakorerwa ihohoterwa bagahora mu bwoba buhoraho. Iyi “Politiki y’iringaniza” yanabujije uburenganzira abaturage b’Abahutu bakomoka mu majyepfo no hagati mu gihugu.

Itangazo rya MRND ryo mu 1986 ribuza gutahuka kw’impunzi z’ Abanyawanda

Ibihumbi n’ibihumbi by’impunzi z’Abanyawanda zari mu buhungiro mu bihugu bituranye n’u Rwanda, muri Uganda, mu Burundi, Zaïre, Tanzaniya, Kenya, no hirya no hino ku isi yose. Bari bahamaze imyaka myinshi, batanagifite ikizere cy’igihe bazarekera kuba impunzi. Muri Nyakanga 1986, kubera impunzi z’Abanyarwanda zakomeje kotsa igitutu zisaba uburenganzira bwo gutahuka, Komite nkuru y’ishyaka rukumbi rya MRND yatangaje ko Igihugu ari gito kandi gituwe cyane ku buryo kitakwemerera impunzi z’Abatutsi gutahuka. Ibi byasubiwemo kenshi na Perezida Habyarimana mu myaka y’1980.

Icyiswe Demokarasi

Isenyuka ry’imibereho n’ubukungu by’Igihugu ryiyongereye kubera icyenewabo no guhezwa byatumye mu 1990 abatavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi bagaragara kandi basaba ko ubutegetsi bw’ishyaka rimwe rya MRND burangira hagashyirwaho demokarasi. Amashyaka atavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi yashyizweho ashishikajwe cyane n’icyifuzo cyo kwihorera kw’ihezwa ryakorewe abakomoka hagati no mu majyepfo y’Igihugu. Aya mashyaka kandi yashyizeho imitwe yitwara gisirikare idatinya kwifashisha ihohotera mu rwego rwo guhungabanya ibya politiki, biteza akaduruvayo mu bice byinshi by’Igihugu. Igice kinini cy’abatavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi amaherezo cyinjiye mu mutwe wa “hutu Power” wateguye Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

FPR n’urugendo rwo kugarura ubumwe bw’Igihugu

Mu 1987, abakomoka ku mpunzi, batewe imbaraga no kwibuka amateka y’icyahoze ari u Rwanda rwunze ubumwe ndetse n’iterambere ry’Abanyafurika ryakuraga, batangiye gushaka igisubizo cy’iki kibazo kitabonerwaga iherezo. Bashinze umuryango uharanira gukunda igihugu cy’u Rwanda (FPR) mu rwego rwo gucyura impunzi, ariko kandi bakanahindura u Rwanda Igihugu gitera imbere mu bukungu. Ku ya 1 Ukwakira 1990, ingabo za APR zagabye igitero cya mbere zivuye muri Uganda maze zishinga ibirindiro byazo mu majyaruguru y’Igihugu.

Amasezerano y’amahoro ya Arusha yo mu 1993 atarashyizwe mu bikorwa

Nyuma yo kunanirwa gukura mu birindiro ingabo za APR mu majyaruguru y’Igihugu, guverinoma y’u Rwanda yemeye kugirana ibiganiro by’amahoro na FPR. Ku ya 4 Kanama 1993, hasinywa amasezerano y’amahoro ya Arusha. Yateganyaga ko intambara ihagarara kandi hagashyirwaho guverinoma yagutse y’ubumwe bw’igihugu, harimo na FPR.Itsinda ry’abasirikare b’intagondwa zari mu gisirikare cy’U Rwanda, Forces Armées Rwandaises (FAR), barashe indege ya Perezida Habyarimana ubwo yari agarutse avuye mu nama y’akarere i Dar-es-Salaam aho yari yemeye no gushyira mu bikorwa amasezerano y’amahoro ya Arusha. Urupfu rwe rwabaye urwitwazo rwo gukora Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi. Mu minsi ijana, Abatutsi barenga miliyoni barishwe.

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NYUMA YA JENOSIDE

Nyuma y’iminsi ijana y’ubwicanyi bwakorerwaga Abatutsi, ku itariki ya 4 Nyakanga 1994, RPA yafashe Kigali itangaza ko jenoside ihagaritswe. Guverinoma y’inzibacyuho yakoze jenoside, ingabo zayo, (FAR) n’interahamwe bahunga Igihugu batwara abantu babarirwa mu bihumbi amagana berekeza mu nkambi nini muri Zaire no muri Tanzaniya.

Hirya no hino mu gihugu hari umwuka wo guceceka, nta kintu na kimwe kiboneka ndetse n’umunuko ukabije w’imirambo.

Kwiheba kw’abarokotse Jenoside

Nyuma y’igihe gito cyo kwakira ko barokotse, abarokotse jenoside bari mu rujijo, ntibashoboraga kumva uburemere budasanzwe bw’ibyari bimaze kubabaho. Abenshi bari bashonje kandi barakomeretse bikabije, bavurwa kandi bahumurizwa n’abasirikare ba FPR hamwe n’abakozi b’abasivili. Abacitse ku icumu benshi ntibari bazi aho abo mu miryango yabo baherereye. Ntabwo bari bazi uwapfuye cyangwa uwarokotse. Bamwe bashatse gusubira mu ngo zabo basanga amazu yabo yarasenywe. Abacitse ku icumu bari bihebye bibaza impamvu banarokotse.

Intsinzi bigoye kwishimira n’ubutumwa bw’ubumwe bw’Igihugu

Igihugu cyari cyasenyutse kandi abaturage barumiwe. Ku barwanyi ba RPA n’abayobozi ba FPR bafatanyije, intsinzi yari ishaririye. Ubuyobozi bwatanze ubutumwa bwo kwifata no kwirinda kwihorera. Muri icyo gihe kandi haje ubutumwa bugoye ku marangamutima buvuga ko kugarura ubumwe bw’Igihugu aribyo byihutirwa. Icyari gihuriweho cyane mu barokotse, abari mu Rwanda, impunzi zo 1959 zari zitashye ndetse n’abandi baturage cyari ubwoba.

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GUVERINOMA Y’UBUMWE BW’ABANYARWANDA YA NYUMA YA JENOSIDE

Mu itangazo yashyize ahagaragara ku ya 17 Nyakanga 1994, FPR yafashe ishingano zikomeye mu mateka zo gushyiraho guverinoma nshya no kuyobora inzibacyuho nyuma ya jenoside. Iyi guverinoma y’ubumwe bw’igihugu yagombaga kuba ihuriro rya politiki ishingiye ku masezerano ya Arusha, igahuza amashyaka yose ataragize uruhare muri jenoside.

Guha amahirwe abari bagize ingabo zahoze zihanganye

Muri Mutarama 1995, abasirikare 1 011, barimo ba ofisiye 81 bahoze mu ngabo za FAR zatsinzwe, binjijwe mu gisirikare gishya cy’Igihugu, bagumana amapeti yabo. Abahoze ari abasirikare bakuru ba FAR bahawe inshingano zikomeye muri RPA: nk’umuyobozi mukuru wa jandarumori, umuyobozi mukuru wungirije w’ingabo, abakomanda ba brigade n’aba za batayo.

Mu ntangiriro z’umwaka wa 2015, abasirikare bahoze mu ngabo za FAR, RPA ndetse n’abahoze mu mitwe yitwara gisirikare 70 000 bari bamaze gusezererwa mu gisirikare, naho 80% muri bo basubizwa mu miryango yabo. Benshi muri aba basirikare basezerewe baturutse mu nyeshyamba zizerera mu mashyamba ya Congo.

Ubukangurambaga bugamije amahoro n’ubumwe bw’Igihugu

Jenoside ikimara guhagarikwa, “abakada” ba FPR, abasirikare bakuru n’abandi bayobozi bateguye ubukangurambaga bugamije guteza imbere amahoro n’ubumwe mu baturage. Muri ubwo bukangurambaga, abanyapolitiki batesheje agaciro ivanguramoko berekana ko amacakubiri ashingiye ku moko ari yo yatumye habaho Jenoside kandi ko nta muntu wabyungukiyemo. Basabye abaturage kwibona nk’Abanyarwanda. Ibikorwa byo kwihorera byakurikiranywe n’ubutabera bidatinze.

Itahuka ry’impunzi mu 1994

Kuva muri Nyakanga 1994, ibihumbi amagana by’impunzi zo 1959, zahunze ubwicanyi bwibasiye Abatutsi mu myaka mirongo itatu n’itanu yari ishize basubiye mu rwababyaye ari benshi. Muri icyo gihe, imibare y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye yerekana ko abantu bagera kuri 1,800,000, harimo n’abakoze jenoside benshi bahunze Igihugu. Mu Gushyingo 1996, nyuma y’uko ingabo z’u Rwanda zigiye kurwana muri Zaire, impunzi ibihumbi magana zavanywe mu maboko y’intagondwa zari mu nkambi zisubira mu Rwanda. Mu kwezi kumwe, impunzi hafi ya zose z’Abanyarwanda zaratahutse ziva muri Tanzaniya. Byari ubwa mbere kuva mu 1959 Abanyarwanda bongera guhurira ku butaka bumwe bw’Igihugu.

Inama nyunguranabitekerezo zihuza abaturage zo mu 1996

Mu 1996, mu Turere tumwe na tumwe, kubana kw’impunzi zo mu 1994, izagarutse mu gihugu zo mu 1959, ndetse n’abarokotse jenoside byateje impagarara zishingiye ku kubona ubutaka. Nyuma y’ubukangurambaga bwananiwe kugarura ubwumvikane, hafashwe umwanzuro wo kureka abantu bakaganira ku byabatandukanije binyuze mu biganiro by’abaturage. Inama nyunguranabitekerezo zatangijwe mu Gihugu hose ziza kugaragaza impamvu eshanu nyamukuru zitera amakimbirane mu Rwanda: ubuyobozi bubi, ubukene, ubujiji, umuco wo kudahana no guhezwa. Guverinoma yafashe icyemezo cyo kwigana inzira yanyuzwemo n’izi nama z’abaturage itegura ibiganiro byimbitse ku rwego rw’Igihugu mu cyiswe ibiganiro byo muri Village Urugwiro.

Ubutwari bw’abanyeshuri bo Mu ishuri ry’i Nyange

Mu ijoro ryo ku ya 18 Werurwe 1997 ahagana mu ma saa tatu z’ijoro, itsinda ry’abacengezi baturutse mu nkambi z’impunzi muri Zaïre binjiye mu byumba bibiri by’amashuri (uwa 5 n’uwa 6 yisumbuye) harimo abanyeshuri 47. Babategetse kwivangura Abahutu n’Abatutsi. Abanyeshuri baranze, bavuga ko bose ari Abanyarwanda. Barindwi muri bo barishwe abandi benshi barakomereka. Ubutwari bw’abanyeshuri bo mu ishuri ry’I Nyange bwabahesheje gushyirwa mu ntwari z’Igihugu mu rwego rw’ Imena.

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ISHYIRWAHO RY’INZEGO Z’U RWANDA RUSHYA

Ibiganiro byo muri Village Urugwiro

Mu 1998, ubuyobozi bushya bwa FPR bwatangije ibiganiro byinshi muri “Village Urugwiro” hagamijwe kwitegura impinduka zirambye z’Igihugu. Ibiganiro byabaye hagati ya Gicurasi 1998 na Werurwe 1999, hakorwa inama buri cyumweru ku wa Gatandatu. Izi nama zahuje abitabiriye 164 baturutse mu mashyaka ya politiki yemewe yose no mu zindi nzego z’umuryango nyarwanda, ndetse n’abantu bari bakomeye bo mu gihe cy’ubwami ndetse no muri Repubulika ya mbere n’iya kabiri.

Ibyerekezo bibiri by’ingenzi byagaragaye mu biganiro byo mu rugwiro: gushimangira ubumwe bw’Igihugu nk’umusingi gahunda zose zubakiraho, kandi abaturage bagashyirwa imbere muri gahunda n’ingamba z’iterambere. Inzego, amategeko na gahunda zikomeye zagombaga gusobanura u Rwanda rushya byashyizweho muri ibyo biganiro. Urugero: Itegeko Nshinga ryo mu 2003 rikubiyemo amahame ya demokarasi yumvikanyweho, kwegereza ubuyobozi abaturage, Komisiyo y’Igihugu y’Ubumwe n’Ubwiyunge; Inkiko Gacaca n’ikerekezo 2020 nk’ingamba zo kuzahura ubukungu.

Itegeko Nshinga ryo muri 2003

ryashyizeho uburyo bwo kugabana ubutegetsi bushingiye ku gushaka ubwumvikane. Umutwe wa politiki ufite ubwiganze mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko ntushobora gufata imyanya irenga 50% mu Nama y’Abaminisitiri. Perezida wa Repubulika na Perezida w’Umutwe w’Abadepite bagomba kuba bakomoka mu mitwe ya politiki itandukanye. Nibura 30% by’imyanya mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko no muri Sena bigenewe abagore kandi Sena igomba kwerekana ubudasa bw’Igihugu.

Hashyizweho ihuriro nyunguranabitekerezo ry’imitwe ya politiki

kugirango ritegure inama zihoraho hagati y’imitwe ya politiki, Itegeko ryo mu 2001 ryerekeye icyaha cy’ivangura, mu gihe mu 2008 hashyizweho itegeko rihana icyaha cy’ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside mu rwego rwo guhagarika ubwicanyi bwakorerwaga abarokotse jenoside n’abatangabuhamya mu nkiko Gacaca bwakomezaga kwiyongera.

Inzego zishyigikira ubutabera.

Urwego rw’Umuvunyi rwashyizweho mu 2004 mu rwego rwo kurwanya ruswa n’akarengane. Inama y’Igihugu y’ibizamini yashyizweho mu 2001 hagamijwe gutegura ibizamini mu mashuri abanza n’ayisumbuye kugira ngo habeho ubutabera mu kubona uburezi na buruse za leta. Ihuriro ry’uburinganire ryashinzwe mu 2009 rihabwa inshingano zo guteza imbere uburinganire bw’abagore n’abagabo.

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UBUMWE N’UBWIYUNGE NK’UMUSINGI WO KUBAKA IGIHUGU

Komisiyo y’Igihugu y’Ubumwe n’Ubwiyunge

Komisiyo y’Igihugu y’Ubumwe n’Ubwiyunge, yateganijwe n’amasezerano y’amahoro ya Arusha yo mu 1993, yashinzwe mu 1999. Iteza imbere ubumwe n’ubwiyunge kandi igakurikirana uburyo inzego za Leta, iz’abikorera ndetse n’Abanyarwanda muri rusange bakurikiza Politiki y’Igihugu y’Ubumwe n’Ubwiyunge. Inama ya mbere yo ku-rwego rw’Igihugu y’Ubumwe n’Ubwiyunge yabaye mu Kwakira 2000 niyo yatangije ku mugaragaro ibikorwa by’iyi komisiyo.

Gahunda y’Igihugu y’Uburere Mboneragihugu n’inama nyunguranabitekerezo

Mu bikorwa bya mbere bya komisiyo y’Igihugu y’Ubumwe n’Ubwiyunge harimo gutegura ingando z’uburere mboneragihugu, zigamije guhuza Abanyarwanda, bagatekereza kubyo banyuzemo, bakakira amateka y’Igihugu cyabo, kugira ngo bagere ku cyerekezo kimwe cy’ejo hazaza. Ingando zaje kwaguka zigera ku bagore, urubyiruko, abanyeshuri ba kaminuza ndetse n’abayobozi b’inzego z’ibanze. Komisiyo iteza imbere amatsinda (clubs) y’ubwiyunge akorera mu mashuri ndetse n’ayo mu baturage ahuza abarokotse n’abakoze Jenoside. Komisiyo ikurikiranira hafi uko inzego za Leta n’iz’abikorera, imiryango nyarwanda itari iya Leta cyangwa imiryango iva mu mahanga itari iya Leta ikorera mu Rwanda, abayobozi n’Abanyarwanda muri rusange bubahiriza amahame y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge mu bihe bisanzwe no mu bidasanzwe nko mu gihe cy’amatora no mu gihe cyo kwibuka.”

Inama zo ku rwego rw’Igihugu

Komisiyo yateguye Inama z’Igihugu zinyuranye ku bumwe n’ubwiyunge mu mwaka w’i 2000, mu 2002 no mu 2004. Izi nama zahuje Abanyarwanda baturutse imihanda yose, harimo n’ababa mu mahanga kugira ngo baganire ku iterambere ry’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge hagati y’Abanyarwanda. Izi nama zatumye hashyirwaho urundi rwego rukomeye, – Umushyikirano, ariwo Inama y’Igihugu y’umushyikirano.

Igipimo cy’ubwiyunge mu Rwanda

Buri myaka itanu, Komisiyo y’Igihugu y’Ubumwe n’Ubwiyunge itangaza igipimo cy’ubwiyunge kigamije kumva ahashize no gutegura ahazaza, gitanga amakuru ku ihindagurika ry’ubwiyunge mu gihugu, cyibanda cyane ku iterambere ry’imyumvire mu bijyanye n’ubwenegihugu, umuco wa politiki, umutekano, imibereho myiza, ubutabera, uburinganire, uburenganzira bwa muntu n’imibanire.

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UBUTABERA N’UBWIYUNGE

“Umunsi umwe, mu muhango wo kwibuka, negerewe n’uwarokotse jenoside. Yari yakozweho cyane. Yarambajije ati: “Kuki udusaba kubabarira?” “Ntabwo twababajwe bihagije? Ko atari twe ba nyirabayazana w’iki kibazo; Kuki tugomba kugishakira igisubizo? Ibi byari ibibazo bitoroshye. Nacecetse umwanya muremure; Hanyuma ndamubwira nti: “Umbabarire rwose; Uvuze ukuri. Mbasaba byinshi cyane. Ariko sinzi icyo nasaba abagize uruhare muri Jenoside. “Ihangane” ntibagarura ubuzima bw’uwo ariwe wese. Imbabazi zonyine nizo zishobora gukizaiki gihugu. Umutwaro uri ku barokotse kuko aribo bonyine bafite icyo batanga.”

– Perezida Paul Kagame yabitangaje muri ‘Humans of New York’

Kuva mu 1959, abagize uruhare mu gukandamiza no kwica Abatutsi ntibahanwe ndetse baranahembwe. Abateguye jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi bashishikarije imbaga y’abantu kugira uruhare muri ubwo bwicanyi kugira ngo uruhare rwabo rutagaragara. Mu 2000, abantu barenga 130,000 bakekwaho ibyaha bya jenoside barafunzwe: ibi byari gutwara imyaka irenga ijana kugira ngo inkiko zisanzwe ziburanishe izo manza.

Inkiko Gacaca (2002-2012)

Mu ntangiriro, Igitekerezo cy’Inkiko Gacaca – inkiko z’abaturage zikomoka ku gitekerezo cya Gacaca, uburyo gakondo bwo gukemura amakimbirane – no kuziha imanza za jenoside, cyateje kutumvikana. Bamwe bumvaga izi manza zitazashobora kuburanishwa n’abenegihugu basanzwe. Abandi babibonamo uburyo bwo gushinja abagize umuryango wose w’Abahutu, mu gihe abandi batinyaga ko byazagarura umuco wo kudahana. Hanze y’u Rwanda, abahanga mu mategeko bagaragazaga impungenge zihari zo kuba nta bacamanza bahuguwe n’abunganira ababurana bahari.

Inkiko Gacaca zari zigamije kunga Abanyarwanda binyuze mu butabera bugirwamo uruhare na buri wese, kandi ari ngombwa kuvugisha ukuri. Izi nkiko zari zifite kandi inshingano ikomeye yo guhana abagize uruhare muri Jenosde bityo hagacika umuco wo kudahana. Abaturage babaye abashinjacyaha, abacamanza n’abatangabuhamya. Gacaca yakoreraga kw’ ihame ryo gushyira mu byiciro ibyaha no kugabanya igihano ku bemeye ibyaha ku bushake kandi bagasaba imbabazi. Mu myaka icumi, Gacaca yaciriye imanza 1.958.634 z’abaregwa mu byiciro bitandukanye.

Amaherezo, Gacaca yashoboye gutuma abantu bavuga ku byabaye mu gihe cya jenoside hirya no hino mu baturage. Naho abarokotse jenoside, bamwe bashoboye kumenya aho imibiri y’ababo iri banabashyingura mu cyubahiro. Ibi bikaba byarabaruhuye imitima. Gacaca yabaye iherezo ry’igice kimwe cy’amateka y’u Rwanda rwa nyuma ya jenoside inaba n’itangiriro ry’igice cy’amateka mashya mu buzima bw’Abanyarwanda n’Igihugu cyabo.

Kurekurwa kw’ibihumbi by’imfungwa zakekwagaho jenoside

Ku ya 1 Mutarama 2003, iteka rya perezida ryategetse ko abantu ibihumbi bakekwaho kuba baragize uruhare muri jenoside barekurwa bidatinze. Harimo abari batari buzuza imyaka y’ubukure mu gihe cya jenoside, abarwayi, abasaza, n’abasahuye imitungo y’abahigwaga. Imfungwa zigera ku 60 000 zararekuwe hagati ya 2004 na 2007.

Gukuraho igihano cy’urupfu

Nyuma ya 1998, u Rwanda rwahagaritse igihano cy’urupfu maze mu 2007 rukuraho burundu iki igihano.

Watch The role of Gacaca in the reconstruction of Unity
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IZINDI GAHUNDA ZIMAKAZA UBUMWE N’UBWIYUNGE

Guha abagore ijambo

Kongerera ubushobozi abagore byabafashije kugira uruhare runini muri gahunda yo kwiyubaka bashyiraho imiyoboro iboneye yo kuvuganiramo ibijyanye n’imibereho ya politiki, haba mu bayobozi bakuru ndetse no mu nzego z’ibanze. Nyuma ya jenoside, abagore bari ku isonga, barera impfubyi, baba abajyanama mu bijyanye n’ihungabana, bashinga amakoperative, baba Inyangamugayo muri Gacaca kandi bagira uruhare mu buyobozi bw’ibanze n’ubuyobozi bukuru bw’Igihugu.

Unity-Club

Unity-Club yashinzwe muri gashyantare 1996 ishinzwe n’abaminisitiri b’abagore hamwe n’abagore b’aba minisitiri, biturutse ku gitekerezo cya Nyakubahwa Jeannette Kagame Madamu wa Nyakubahwa Visi Perezida wa Repubulika, akaba na Minisitiri w’ingabo. Unity Club Intwararumuri yubatse ikiraro cya politiki cyo guhuriramo hatari mu nama y’Abaminisitiri, bitewe n’ukutumvikana muri politiki byariho icyo gihe. Uyu muryango washinzwe hagamijwe guteza imbere ubumwe ukanagira uruhare mu iterambere ry’imibereho n’ubukungu by’Igihugu nyuma ya jenoside. Abaminisitiri b’abagore bose ndetse n’abagore b’Abaminisitiri bose babaye muri Guverinoma ni abanyamuryango ba Unity Club Intwararumuri. Abagabo bashakanye n’abagize guverinoma binjiye muri uyu muryango muri Werurwe 2007. Unity Club Intwararumuri yagize uruhare runini mu gutangiza gahunda ya Ndi Umunyarwanda n’iy’ Abarinzi b’Igihango.

Ikigega gishinzwe gufasha abarokotse Jenoside

FARG yashyizweho mu 1998, itanga ubufasha bw’imibereho ku barokotse jenoside, basigaye mu bukene bukabije. Ibaha ubufasha mu nzego zitandukanye z’ubuzima. FARG yagize uruhare runini mu kongerera amahirwe yo kubaho abarokotse bakiri bato.

Kwibuka Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi

Buri mwaka, hagati ya tariki 7 Mata n’tariki 3 Nyakanga, Abanyarwanda bibuka Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi. Ku munsi wa nyuma w’icyumweru cyo kwibuka (7-13 Mata), abanyapolitiki b’Abahutu ndetse n’Abatutsi barwanyije umushinga wa jenoside kandi bakahasiga ubuzima bwabo nabo baribukwa. Uko imyaka igenda ishira, urubyiruko rwinshi rufite inkomoko zitandukanye rugira uruhare mu Kwibuka.

Itorero / uburere mboneragihugu

Hagendewe ku rwego gakondo rwatozaga, urwego rugezweho rw’Itorero rwatangijwe muri 2007 nka gahunda y’Igihugu ishinzwe uburere mboneragihugu, yigisha indangagaciro z’Igihugu ku bantu bakorera mu nzego zitandukanye n’Abanyarwanda muri rusange.

Abarinzi b’Igihango

Iri zina ryahawe abantu mu rwego rwo gushimira ibikorwa byabo by’ubumuntu mu gihe cya jenoside; no mu bindi bihe bitandukanye by’amateka.

Ndi Umuyarwanda

“Ndi Umunyarwanda”, igamije gutoza Abanyarwanda kwiyumvamo ubunyarwanda mbere y’ibindi, kubana nta rwikekwe no gushyira inyungu rusange n’iz’igihugu mbere y’inyungu bwite, binyuze mu rubuga rw’ibiganiro bagirana mu bwisanzure.

Rwanda Day

Kuva yatangira bwa mbere muri Kamena 2011 Chicago muri Amerika, buri mwaka hategurwa umunsi w’u Rwanda mu mahanga hagamijwe gukomeza umubano hagati y’Abanyarwanda baba mu mahanga n’Igihugu cyabo. Perezida wa Repubulika, aherekejwe n’abayobozi bari muri guverinoma ndetse n’abacuruzi, baganira ku mibereho y’Igihugu kandi akumva ibyifuzo by’Abanyarwanda baba mu mahanga. Kuri uyu munsi, Abanyarwanda baba mu mahanga bashishikarizwa kugira uruhare mu iterambere ry’Igihugu bakomokamo.

“Garuka urebe, Genda ubabwire”

Iyi ni gahunda igenewe Abanyarwanda baba mu mahanga, batumirwa kuza mu Rwanda, bakirebera ubwabo ibikorwa byo kwiyubaka n’iby’ubwiyunge birimo gukorwa, bagasubirayo bagashishikariza imiryango yabo kugaruka mu gihugu cyabo. Iyi gahunda yashyizweho kugira ngo irwanye isura iteye ubwoba y’u Rwanda ikwirakwizwa mu Banyarwanda baba mu mahanga bikozwe n’abashyigikiye ubutegetsi bwaranzwe n’ivangura.

« Nakuriye mu Rwanda ndi umwana w’umuhutu; nyuma ya jenoside, nifuzaga kwikuraho umutwaro w’amateka y’ubugizi bwa nabi bwabereye mu gihugu cyanjye. Ubwo najyaga muri kaminuza yo muri Amerika nahuye n’ababyeyi b’Abanyarwanda bagize uruhare muri jenoside kandi babiba urwango ku Rwanda ndetse n’ubwoba mu bana babo. Nasanze ngomba kubafasha. Nari mfite kandi inshingano zo kuvuga mu izina ry’Igihugu cyanjye. Mbabajwe n’abana bakuriye hanze y’U Rwanda, kuko batazi inzira zose zo gukira no kwiyunga twanyuzemo. »
–Christine
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NYUMA Y’IGISEKURU

TUGEZE HE?

Nyuma ya kimwe cya kane cy’ikinyejana, nyuma y’ihagarikwa rya jenoside, u Rwanda ruhagaze neza muri politiki no mu mibereho myiza y’abaturage. Ruri mu mahoro no mu majyambere kurusha uko rwahoze. Igihugu cyateye intambwe ikomeye mu nzira y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge. Abantu muri rusange bashyigikiye iyi myumvire, kandi bemera ko ubwiyunge ari urugendo rusaba igihe no kwihangana. Ubuhamya butangwa n’abantu bafite imyaka itandukanye bwerekana ishusho nziza ariko bakanatanga ibitekerezo byabo ku buryo butandukanye.

Urugendo rwo kubabarira no kwiyunga mu Rwanda

“Kubabarira biruhura uwababariye kuruta ubabarirwa. Nari nikoreye umutwaro. Igihe nababariye, nabonye amahoro. Nababariye kubera kwikunda no kugirango nkire muri njye.”
– Claudine
“Ntabwo twese dukeneye kwiyunga -Nashyize ubumwe n’ubwiyunge ku ruhande mu gaseke. Nahisemo kudaca muri iyo nzira. Ntabwo nkeneye guhangana n’abantu bakoze jenoside. Mfite ibitekerezo byiza, Nishimiye Igihugu cyanjye ndetse na guverinoma kandi nshyigikiye gahunda zayo, ariko ntabwo nshishikajwe n’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge. Ntutubaze aho tugeze kubyerekeye ubwiyunge, bizatwara ikinyejana kirenga kugirango bigerweho.”
– Maurice
“Hari abacitse ku icumu bafite intege nke baba bonyine mu cyaro nta n’umwe mu bagize umuryango wabo babana nawe. Bashobora guhinga ku musozi wa kure bagasarura buri gihembwe, batangirijwe cyangwa ngo bibwe imyaka yabo. Nibyo bigaragaza ubwiyunge.”
– AlphonseNtamfurayishyari Silas, Umurinzi w’Igihango (a Guardian of National Values), a soldier in the former army who from the barracks he was in saved tens of people during the genocide against the Tutsi.

Urugendo rwo kubabarira no kwiyunga mu Rwanda

“Yatemye umwana nari mpetse mu mugongo amucamo bice bibiri hanyuma antema ikiganza. Yansabye imbabazi. Ntibyari byoroshye... ariko yambereye umurinzi. Buri munsi tuvugana kuri terefoni. Igihe amabati y’inzu yanjye yatwarwaga n’umuyaga, naramuhamagaye ngo aze amfashe kuyasubizaho. Iyo ndwaye aransura, nanjye nkabikora. Umubano wacu ni uwa bugufi cyane.”
– Annonciata
“Ubwiyunge buva mu gitekerezo cyo ‘Kwunga’, bivuze kongera guhuriza hamwe icyahoze ari kimwe. Gusa icyari kimwe nicyo gishobora guhuzwa. aho niho hari ipfundo ry’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge. Mbere y’ibi byose, twari umwe.”
– Nshuti
Genocide survivor John Giraneza with his wife the daughter of the killer of his family and their children in Rweru Sector in Bugesera Distric. Photo @The New Times.
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IBIBANGAMIYE UBUMWE N’UBWIYUNGE

Kimwe cya kane cy’ikinyejana nyuma ya jenoside, imbogamizi zitari nke ku murage wa jenoside n’uburyo amateka yayo yumvikana bikomeje kugaragara.

Guhakana no gupfobya Jenoside hanze yu Rwanda

Amahuriro y’abahakana bakanapfobya jenoside akomeje gukora akazi kayo, cyane cyane binyuze ku mbuga nkoranyambaga. Aya mahuriro ahuza urubyiruko rutuye i Burayi n’ahandi n’abagize uruhare muri jenoside ndetse n’imitwe y’iterabwoba.

Hatangijwe imiyoboro ya youtube hirya no hino by’umwihariko uwatangirijwe mu Bubiligi uha icyubahiro umwicanyi wapfiriye muri gerezan yo mu budage nyuma guhamwa n’ibyaha by’intambara no kuba yarayoboye umutwe w’iterabwoba.

Mu mashyamba ya Repubulika iharanira demokarasi ya Congo, ubwo bavugishaga Umuyobozi w’umutwe w’iterabwoba binyuze ku muyoboro wa YouTube ukorera mu Bubiligi.

Imbere mu Gihugu

Ibibazo bibaho bijyanye n’ivanguramoko mu gihe cyo Kwibuka.Kwibuka, ni igihe kitoroshye mu mibanire mu Rwanda. Umubare w’ibibazo bijyanye n’amacakubiri muri iki gihe ni ikimenyetso kerekana ihindagurika ry’imibanire myiza mu gihugu. Amakuru atangwa na Polisi y’Igihugu yerekana ko igabanuka ry’ibyo bibazo ryakomeje kugaragara mu gihe cyo Kwibuka kuva Inkiko Gacaca zarangira. Ubugenzuzi bwa Komisiyo y’Igihugu y’Ubumwe n’Ubwiyunge bugaragaza kandi ko habayeho kwiyongera kw’abaturage bitabira ibikorwa byo Kwibuka cyane cyane ku Banyarwanda bafite imiryango itarahigwaga mu gihe cya jenoside, by’umwihariko urubyiruko.Nyamara, ubushakashatsi bwerekana itandukaniro rishingiye ku myaka, aho bigaragara ko abakiri bato badafite urwikekwe rushingiye ku moko kurusha bakuru babo. Ubundi bushakashatsi bwa Komisiyo bwerekanye ko ababyeyi bamwe bagishishikajwe no kwigisha abana babo imyumvire ishingiye ku moko.Mu gihe kizaza haramutse habaye impinduka mu nyigisho, hashobora kuvuka uburyo bushya bwo gukoresha icyenewabo n’ubuyobozi burya ruswa bishobora guhita biganisha kuri politiki y’ivangura;Mu bihe bitandukanye, ingorane z’ubukungu zishobora kubonwa ko zituruka ku guhezwa mu mibereho;Kimwe n’abahakana jenoside yakorewe Abayahudi abayahudi, nubwo hari intambwe imaze guterwa, amacakubiri ashingiye ku moko ashobora kuzakomeza kubaho igihe kirekire mu rwego rwa politiki n’imibereho myiza mu Rwanda, niyo byakomeza kugaragara biri ku kigero cyo hasi.

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IKIZERE MU BABYIRUKA

Nubwo hakiri abadayimoni bagomba kwirukanwa, imibanire y’Abanyarwanda ihindagurika igana ku rukundo, aho kugana ku rwango. Muli iki gihe birasa nk’aho abakuze cyane batsimbaraye kubyo banyuzemo by’urwikekwe; Abakuru barimo guhangana no kubivamo mu gihe abakiri bato babayeho batabaswe nabyo.
– Nathalie
“Kuba Abatutsi cyangwa Abahutu biracyahari nk’irangamuntu ya kabiri: naho kuba Umunyarwanda biza ku mwanya wa mbere.”
– Brian
“Tugomba gukomeza kugirana umubano ukomeye n’amahanga mu bihe biri imbere kugirango twite ku kibazo cyo kurwanya ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside ku rwego mpuzamahanga.”
– Michel
“Mu gihe cya vuba, amakimbirane ashobora kuba hagati y’abafite n’abadafite. Biroroshye gutunga urutoki umuyobozi urangwaho ruswa.”
– Jean de Dieu
“Niba Leta ikomeje kurwanya ivangura ry’ubwoko bwose, abantu bazakomeza guhinduka. Kubera ko iyo umuntu atangiye guhura n’ivangura atangira kwibaza impamvu. Ariko igihe cyose habaye uburinganire, haba hari ibyiringiro.”
– Tony
“Ibyo dufite kugeza ubu ni inzira y’ubwiyunge rusange, mu bijyanye na politiki n’imvugo rusange, ariko ibikorwa bya buri muntu bizajyana n’igihe – cyane mu bantu bakuru. Nta gisubizo kibereye buri wese mu bijyanye n’ubwiyunge, ndetse no kubabarira. Abantu barimo gutera intambwe, uko bareshya.”
– Richard
Youth discussing peace, unity and reconciliation sdjfdjfhjdf jfjdhfjdhjfhdjfhdjfhjdhfjdhfjdhfjd fdfdfdfdf
The Post Genocide reconstruction

Amakuru yimurikabikorwa

Turashimira byimazeyo Ibigo:

Ibiro bya Perezida wa Repubulika; Minisiteri y'Ingabo; Chanceleri y'intwari, National Orders and Decorations of Honor; Komisiyo y’amatora y’igihugu; Ikigo cy'ingoro z'umurage w'u Rwanda; Urwibutso rwa Jenoside rwa Kigali; RBA; Cine Photo; Imvaho Nshya; The New Times; Igihe.

Igishushanyo mbonera n'ubuhanzi byakozwe na:

Ubumuntu Humanity Ltd

mu izina rya Komisiyo y'Igihugu y'Ubumwe n'Ubwiyunge